CNS demyelinating disorders like multiple sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica affects the myelin in the brain and spinal cord. They are usually diagnosed based on the presenting signs and symptoms and the results of supporting medical tests, mostly MRI brain with spinal cord. There is no known cure for multiple sclerosis. Treatments attempt to improve function after an attack and prevent new attacks. In acute attacks, IV methylprednisolone is usually given. disease-modifying medications are approved by regulatory agencies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) includes interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, alemtuzumab and ocrelizumab.
Other CNS demyelinating diseases includes Acute‐disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO), Acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy etc.