Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.

Movement disorders are synonymous with basal ganglia or extrapyramidal diseases.

Movement disorders are conventionally divided into two major categories- hyperkinetic and hypokinetic.

  • Hyperkinetic movement disorders refer to dyskinesia, or excessive, often repetitive, involuntary movements that intrude upon the normal flow of motor activity. E.g. Chorea, dystonia, tremors etc.
  • Hypokinetic movement disorders refer to akinesia (lack of movement), hypokinesia (reduced amplitude of movements), bradykinesia (slow movement) and rigidity. E.g. Parkinson’s disease, atypical parkinsonian diseases like PSP, CBGD, MSA etc.

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